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Search research, experts, topics, or events Open search Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan holds a Koran at the opening ceremony of the Selehaddin Eyyubi airport on May 26,in eastern city of Hakkari.
Cornell In the past two decades, Turkey has emerged on the global scene. But over time, the AKP moved to change Turkey: Over the past five years, the AKP has also moved on the domestic front, infusing the education system with Islamic themes. This article is not a study of the policies of the Turkish government; it is an inquiry into the religious and ideological environment informing Turkish political Islam.
Turkish political Islam, and with it Turkish politics, is increasingly based on powerful religious orders and brotherhoods, collectively termed tarikat and cemaat, respectively.
These communities constitute the deep structure of Turkish power, and share a common ideological source: While they differ from one another in interpretation and tone, the Naqshbandi-Khalidi groups have formed Turkish political Islam, and through the AKP, the Khalidi worldview has become the dominant political force in Turkey today.
With only slight exaggeration, the ruling Justice and Development Party as well as the government it has led could be termed a coalition of religious orders—a fact generally ignored by analysts of Turkish politics. This article discusses the background of the religious orders in Turkey, focusing on the Naqshbandi-Khalidi order, before studying the various offshoots that have assumed important roles in Turkish politics today.
Religious Orders in the Late Ottoman Empire and the Early Republic Religious orders and communities have played an important role in Turkish politics and society since the Ottoman period. These are part of, or offshoots from, the mystical Sufi tradition in Islam, called Tasavuf in Turkish.
This tradition is based on receiving spiritual guidance from masters forming part of a chain of teachers going all the way back to the Prophet Muhammed. As a result, various masters formed congregations, some of which evolved into large orders Tariqat that span countries and continents.
In turn, these orders are subdivided into sub-orders or branches kol and further into various lodges dergah. The Naqshbandi order is among the largest such orders in the world, and throughout history has played a critical role in the spread of Islam. In the modern period, there have been offshoots of these orders, which are not strictly Sufi congregations, but religious communities of a more modern rather than mystical nature.
The role of these orders has undergone several phases. Prior to the nineteenth century Western-style reforms, they were tied closely to the Ottoman bureaucracy; importantly, however, they never played a direct political role. In the late Ottoman period, they gradually weakened as Western educational and secular principles gained ground.
In the early years of the Turkish Republic, they were systematically suppressed. From tothey gradually re-emerged on the political scene, effectively usurping power from onward. The ebb and flow of the influence of religious orders dates back to the Ottoman defeat at Vienna, and the ensuing military losses to Western powers.
This set in motion a process of renewal and reform, which gradually led to the decline of the influence of the Ulema, the clerical establishment.
Paradoxically, the Orthodox Naqshbandi order initially benefited because the destruction of the Janissary corps in also led to the closure of the heterodox and moderate Bektashi order, which had enjoyed considerable influence in the bureaucracy. The Naqshbandi-Khalidi order filled the void left by the Bektashis in the bureaucracy and Ottoman intellectual life.the research process by providing an overview of the nursing researc h process, including the steps to designing a research proj ect, .
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(April ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Use of Evidence-Based Practice The STTI survey results suggest that EBP is gaining not only recognition but also expanding application in nursing: 90% of respondents reported that they need to access and apply EBP at least occasionally (1 to 2 times per month);.
Nursing theories and models developed for all nursing specializations. In the Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) swept to power in Turkey. Since then it has shied away from a hard-line ideological stance in favour of .
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