Science A New Direction General Electric, the major manufacturer of light bulbs, had preliminary evidence that better lighting of the work place improved worker productivity, but wanted to validate these findings to sell more light bulbs, especially to businesses.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Besides the new workplace, environmental changes such as advanced information technology, globalization, and recognition and management of diversity and ethics are significant challenges faced by the management.
The ongoing changes are dictating new rules, new boundaries, and new behaviors that are essential for organizations and managers to be successful.
This new paradigm facing management requires a new perspective and an appreciation of the human behavioral side of management.
In this scenario, the field of organizational behavior attains lot of importance. This field is relatively new and therefore is surrounded by a lot of speculations and apprehensions.
Its beginnings are attributed to the famous Hawthorne studies conducted in s. These studies are often criticized for methodological flaws, yet Hawthorne studies laid down the foundations of organizational behavior and marked the start point for all further research in this field.
This essay will scrutinize this study conducted by Professor Elton Mayo and bring out its implications in the field of organizational behavior and analyze it in light of research in this field.
Sloan, and even the scientific managers at the end of the 19th century such as Frederick W. Taylor, did recognize the behavioral side of management.
However, they did not emphasize the human dimension. They let it play only a minor role in comparison with the roles of hierarchical structure, specialization, and the management functions of planning and controlling.
Even at the time of World War I, people were not considered as an important asset. Henry Fayol in his book, which is considered to be the first book on management, emphasizes that the purpose of the organization was to get the work done in specialized, machinelike function. The initial illumination studies attempted to examine the relationship between light intensity on the shop floor of manual work sites and employee productivity.
A test group and a control group were used. The test group in an early phase showed no increase or decrease in output in proportion to the increase or decrease of illumination. The control group with unchanged illumination increased output by the same amount overall as the test group.
Subsequent phases brought the level of light down to moonlight intensity; the workers could barely see what they were doing but productivity increased.
The results were baffling to the researchers. Obviously, some variable in the level of illumination was causing the change in productivity. This something, of course, was the complex human variable. The illumination studies were followed by a study in the relay room, where operators assembled relay switches.
This phase of study tried to test specific variables, such as length of workday, rest breaks, and method of payment. The results were basically the same as those of the illumination studies: Even when the workers were subjected to the original conditions of the experiment, productivity increased.
Still another phase was the bank wiring room study. As in the preceding relay room experiments, the bank wirers placed in a separate test room study.
The results of the bank wiring room study were essentially opposite to those of the relay room experiments. In the bank wiring room there were not the continual increases in productivity as that occurred in the relay room.
Rather, output was actually restricted by the bank wirers. Findings of the Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo found a change in productivity levels as a result of his experiments based on human behavior.
These experiments hence attained lot of importance, and in fact these turned out to be the focus of world attention. This gave birth to the field of organizational behavior and a human element was thus being included as an important facet of management.
Despite lot of flaws in the methodology of the Hawthorne studies, these still provide a guideline for further research in this field. Productivity increases when people are working in small groups.
Hence work can be attributed as a group activity. The social world of the adult is primarily patterned about work activity. The worker is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both inside and outside the work plant.
Informal groups within the work plant exercise strong social controls over the work habits and attitudes of the individual worker.Hawthorne Studies Essays: Over , Hawthorne Studies Essays, Hawthorne Studies Term Papers, Hawthorne Studies Research Paper, Book Reports.
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The Hawthorne Experiments had helped the human relations in the organization. There have been some settings that had been patterned based on the effects of the experiments of Hawthorne Experiments.
We will write a custom essay sample on Elton Mayo: Hawthorne Effect specifically for you for only $ $/page. Order now. Free Essay: Critique of The Hawthorne Experiments Biography Written by Fritz J.
Roethlisberger ( – ), The Hawthorne Experiments, explores the. The Hawthorne experiments were conducted by Professor Elton Mayo of Harvard University, over the period of five years from to These studies or experiments were performed in order to measure and observe productivity at Western Electric Hawthorne works in Chicago.
The Hawthorne Studies Essay Sample Management is continuously undergoing a paradigm shift. Besides the new workplace, environmental changes such as advanced information technology, globalization, and recognition and management of diversity and ethics are significant challenges faced by the management.
Critique of The Hawthorne Experiments Biography Written by Fritz J. Roethlisberger ( – ), The Hawthorne Experiments, explores the experiments, results and conclusions of studies performed at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company.
The Hawthorne Effect .