Beware the politicians in judges' robes, the wolves in sheep's clothing Thursday, May 24, Tweet As a country, we have never been as afflicted by intellectual schizophrenia as we are with the decision on whether to accept the Caribbean Court of Justice CCJ as our final court of appeal, replacing the United Kingdom Privy Council. Jamaica is not the only one to be so afflicted, it would seem, because only four Caribbean Community Caricom nations have made the CCJ their final appellate court since it was established in and began operating in
Typical questions asked by these disciplines in the regionalism literature are summarized in Table 3. There is not space in this paper to pursue all of these questions. We focus on the contributions of economists who investigate the potential and actual economic impacts of forming regions.
they accomplish a diligent search: both the inward thought of every one of them, and the heart, is: deep. Wastewater treatment technologies. Relatively simple wastewater treatment technologies can be designed to provide low cost sanitation and environmental protection while providing additional benefits from the reuse of water. What is Dual Citizenship and Why is valuable? What is Dual Citizenship? Dual Citizenship / Nationality is a citizenship status in which an individual is a citizen of more than one country at a time.
With the trend towards deeper integration, we summarize the emerging literature on the gains from integrating services trade and from regulatory integration. The lessons for developing countries from the literature surveyed are summarized in conclusion.
Table 3 - Debates about regionalism Motivation -why do regions come into being? Structure - what form do regions take, and why do they take these forms?
Design - how should regions be designed to ensure they function efficently? Impacts - are regions successful in promoting more rapid economic growth for members, and what are the consequences of third parties?
Convergence - do regions assist in the convergence of economic performance and living standards between participating countries? Sustainability - what contributes to the success and sustainability of regions? Systemic - are regions building blocks or stumbling blocks towards a more effective multilateral system?
The traditional approach to regional trade arrangements The traditional economic approach to regional trade integration assumes perfect competition in markets and is concerned with the implications of forming a region for the allocation of resources in a static sense.
This static analysis distinguishes between the trade creation and trade diversion effects of regional trade integration. Unilateral tariff reductions lead to trade creation In order to understand these concepts, it is helpful to begin with the analysis of a country which unilaterally eliminates tariffs on all imports.
As a result, the domestic price falls to the world price. Domestic production falls, domestic consumption increases and total imports increase. The reduction in tariffs leads to additional trade, or trade creation. The effect of the tariff reduction on economic welfare can be decomposed into three effects: Under the standard assumptions that resources remain fully employed and that prices reflect marginal costs and benefits, it is easily shown that the consumer gain exceeds the producer and government loss from reducing tariffs and that there is an overall gain in national welfare as a result of this policy change.
In some cases, the barriers to trade are not rent-creating policies such as tariffs but policies which raise the real cost of importing. Typical examples of such policies are complicated and slow customs procedures, or the imposition of spurious health, safety or technical standards.
Resources which could be employed productively elsewhere in the economy are tied up wasted as a result of these barriers. The removal of such cost-increasing barriers magnifies the gain in national welfare from their elimination.
Discriminatory tariff reductions lead to trade creation and trade diversion Now consider the consequences when a country the home country eliminates trade barriers with its regional partners but maintains them on trade with third countries.
This complicates the analysis because it may lead the home country to switch its source of import supplies. If the partner country is already the low-cost supplier, then preferential trade liberalization leads to the same trade creation effect as earlier identified for unilateral trade liberalization.
Trade creation takes place when preferential liberalization enables a partner country to export more to the home country at the expense of inefficient enterprises in that country.
But preferential liberalization, by maintaining tariffs against the rest of the world, may cause enterprises in the home country to switch supplies from the rest of the world to higher-cost suppliers in the partner country.
The partner country again increases its exports to the home country but this time at the expense of exports from third countries.
Trade diversion occurs when imports from a country which were previously subject to tariffs are displaced by higher cost imports which now enter tariff-free from partners. While trade creation contributes positively to welfare in the home country, trade diversion results in a welfare loss.
The consumer gain on the volume of imports previously imported from third countries is less than the tariff revenue lost by the government because, if the partner country is a less efficient supplier, the domestic price in the home country does not fall to the world price level. This example focuses on the experience of a single partner in an RTA.
It is possible that one or more partners in an RTA can gain from trade diversion in their favor. This is more likely if a country initially has lower tariffs or smaller imports from its partner.
However, trade diversion is always a loss for the RTA overall. A simple numerical example of this proposition can be found in the appendix to this chapter.
A third effect comes into play in the traditional analysis if the RTA is large in world market terms, so that a change in its demand for imports influences the price at which those imports can be purchased.
In imperfectly competitive markets, there may be collective gains if regional integration makes it possible to shift rents away from third countries. Rents exist if firms in the Rest of the World ROW can exercise market power and price above marginal cost.
Forming an RTA increases the amount of competition in the market and this affects not only domestic firms but also ROW firms which will find their ability to extract these rents eroded. Consumers and the RTA as a whole gain from the movement in the terms of trade in their favor.
Not only market power but also bargaining power can be increased by forming an RTA.Wastewater treatment technologies. Relatively simple wastewater treatment technologies can be designed to provide low cost sanitation and environmental protection while providing additional benefits from the reuse of water.
The traditional approach to regional trade arrangements. The traditional economic approach to regional trade integration assumes perfect competition in markets and is concerned with the implications of forming a region . Principles of Accounts Syllabus RATIONALE. Accounting is the financial information system that provides relevant information to those who manage or.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
ISI is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. The term primarily refers to 20th-century development economics policies, although it has been advocated.
But over the years we have grown more despondent as we see the propensity of the political 'old boys' club' to rob our institutions of the impartiality that is paramount to public confidence in. Over the past few years, we have received many questions about the rationale, process, and management of OAs from participants in organizational assessment (OA) processes or training courses on OA, or from visitors to this website.