But not everyone is supportive. The group echoes many of the worries about Golden Rice that environmental non-governmental organizations NGOsled by Greenpeace, have been promoting for years.
The psy and crtI genes were transferred into the rice nuclear genome and placed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoterso that they are only expressed in the endosperm. The exogenous lcy gene has a transit peptide sequence attached, so it is targeted to the plastidwhere geranylgeranyl diphosphate is formed.
The bacterial crtI gene was an important inclusion to complete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis of carotenoids up to lycopene, while these steps require more than one enzyme in plants.
Recent analysis has shown the plant's endogenous enzymes process the lycopene to beta-carotene in the endosperm, giving the rice the distinctive yellow color for which it is named. Vitamin A deficiency[ edit ] Main article: Vitamin A deficiency Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency.
Red is most severe clinicalgreen least severe. Countries not reporting data are coded blue. Data collected for a report.
The research that led to golden rice was conducted with the goal of helping children who suffer from vitamin A deficiency VAD. Inmillion children and 19 million pregnant women, in countries, were estimated to be affected by VAD. Vitamin A is supplemented orally and by injection in areas where the diet is deficient in vitamin A.
As of [update]43 countries had vitamin A supplementation programs for children under 5; in 10 of these countries, two high dose supplements are available per year, which, according to UNICEFcould effectively eliminate VAD.
Initial analyses of the potential nutritional benefits of golden rice suggested consumption of golden rice would not eliminate the problems of vitamin A deficiency, but could complement other supplementation. Vitamin A deficiency is usually coupled to an unbalanced diet see also Vandana Shiva's arguments below.
Domingo of the Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, at Rovira i Virgili University in Spain said, "According to the information reported by the WHO, genetically modified products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities.
Domingo advocates continued research in the areas of GM rice and its effects on humans. The trial concluded that "beta carotene derived from golden rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans". This amount is well within the consumption habits of most young children and their mothers".
Beta carotene in food is a safe source of vitamin A. Genetically modified food controversies Critics of genetically engineered crops have raised various concerns. An early issue was that golden rice originally did not have sufficient vitamin A.
This problem was solved by the development of new strains of rice. Shiva claimed these problems could be amplified by the corporate control of agriculture.
By focusing on a narrow problem vitamin A deficiencyShiva argued, golden rice proponents were obscuring the limited availability of diverse and nutritionally adequate food. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of golden rice for human consumption, stating: Farmers' Movement of the Philippinesto the dismay of other protesters.
In addition, farmers are permitted to keep and replant seed.Mar 07, · A rice enriched with beta-carotene promises to boost the health of poor children around the world.
But critics say golden rice is also a clever PR move for a biotech industry driven by profits. Apr 23, · I’ve mentioned the Golden Rice Project before, on my 4 GMO Crops That Could (And Already Have) Solve Worldwide Problems (click here to see it).I have, since then, grown an interest in the Golden Rice Project.
The Golden Rice project wins the Patents for Humanity Award The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have announced the winners of the recipients of the Patents for Humanity Award, among them the Golden Rice Project.
From the beginning Golden Rice was conceived as a public-good project under the guidance of the Golden Rice Humanitarian Board. The initial prototype (Science ) was further improved in terms of provitamin A (β-carotene) content by a research team at Syngenta (Nature Biotechnology ).
Aug 25, · And Gerard Barry, the Golden Rice project leader at the International Rice Research Institute — and, it must be said, a former senior scientist and executive at Monsanto — suggests that. Golden Rice is back in the news as the Philippines and Bangladesh move closer towards approval of the GMO food crop to combat vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health issue in Asia.