Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.
If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on.
Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date? The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
Each note corresponds to a raised superscript number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography.
The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided. Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style.
Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems. Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher.
Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here.The Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian citation style includes two systems for citations: a notes and bibliography system and the author-date system.
The notes and bibliography system is most commonly used in history courses. This system uses footnotes/endnotes and a bibliography. Always check with your professor or teacher to confirm which [ ]. Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use.
Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Citefast is a FREE APA, MLA and Chicago citation generator. Generate references, bibliographies, in-text citations and title pages quickly and accurately.
Used by students and professionals. Notes and Bibliography (NB) in Chicago style. The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.
It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. Zotero Style Repository. Here you can find Citation Style Language citation styles for use with Zotero and other CSL –compatible software.
For more information on using CSL styles with Zotero, see the Zotero wiki. How to create footnotes and endnotes for Chicago Style Chicago's Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes when using in-text citations.
These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in .