During the final stages of World War II inthe United States conducted atomic raids on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first on August 6,and the second on August 9,
The report offers a glimpse into the history of fluoride, a bio-accumulative toxic that Americans ingest every day. The authors, Griffiths and Bryson, spent more than a year on research.
With the belief that the information should be withheld no longer, the authors gave their report to Waste Not, and others, with a short note: As we learn from this report, the basis of that science was rooted in protecting the U.
Atomic bomb program from litigation. Americans have been convinced that fluoride will save their teeth and we drink more fluoridated water than any other nationality on earth.
We learned about the dirty politics involved in the science and selling of fluoridation to a trusting public. We learned that fluoride is a poison that accumulates in our bones. It has been associated with cancer in young males; osteoporosis; reduced I.
George Orwell would have been dazzled by the promotion of this toxic by dental and public health officials and concurrently, the avoidance of this issue by the environmental community. We think it has a lot to do with the sordid year history of the promotion of fluoridation by the U.
Today, two thirds of U. Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production, according to the documents. One of the most toxic chemicals known, fluoride rapidly emerged as the leading chemical health hazard of the U. S atomic bomb program--both for workers and for nearby communities, the documents reveal.
Much of the original proof that fluoride is safe for humans in low doses was generated by A-bomb program scientists, who had been secretly ordered to provide "evidence useful in litigation" against defense contractors for fluoride injury to citizens. The first lawsuits against the U. A-bomb program were not over radiation, but over fluoride damage, the documents show.
Human studies were required. Bomb program researchers played a leading role in the design and implementation of the most extensive U.
Then, in a classified operation code-named "Program F," they secretly gathered and analyzed blood and tissue samples from Newburgh citizens, with the cooperation of State Health Department personnel. The original secret version--obtained by these reporters--of a study published by Program F scientists in the Journal of the American Dental Association shows that evidence of adverse health effects from fluoride was censored by the U.
The fluoride studies were conducted with the same ethical mind-set, in which "national security" was paramount. The declassified documents resonate with growing body of scientific evidence, and a chorus of questions, about the health effects of fluoride in the environment.
Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since World War II, due not only to fluoridated water and toothpaste, but to environmental pollution by major industries from aluminum to pesticides: The impact can be seen, literally, in the smiles of our children. Large numbers of U.
The signs are whitish flecks or spots, particularly on the front teeth, or dark spots or stripes in more severe cases. In recent years, pediatric bone specialists have expressed alarm about an increase in stress fractures among U. The declassified documents add urgency: Now, researchers who have reviewed these declassified documents fear that Cold War national security considerations may have prevented objective scientific evaluation of vital public health questions concerning fluoride.
Phyllis Mullenix, former head of toxicology at Forsyth Dental Center in Boston, and now a critic of fluoridation.
New epidemiological evidence from China adds support, showing a correlation between low-dose fluoride exposure and diminished I. During her investigation, Mullenix was astonished to discover there had been virtually no previous U. Then, her application for a grant to continue her CNS research was turned down by the U.
An April 29, Manhattan Project memo reports: It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative factor.
Colonel Warren is asked to approve a program of animal research on CNS effects: This is important not only to protect a given individual, but also to prevent a confused workman from injuring others by improperly performing his duties. The proposal, however, is missing from the files of the U. National Archives and Records Administration, where the memos were found.The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum states, “The question of how to inform young people about the horror of war, the threat of nuclear weapons and the importance of the peace is .
Requirements for running an FDTD simulation. Posted by Sidney on May 2, in Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method | 0 comments. The finite-difference time dimension (FDTD) method for simulating computational electromagnetism is considered the simplest and most efficient way to model the effects of electromagnetism on a certain material or object.
The most commercial use of the FDTD . Decades after atomic bombs dropped, scientists debate their application to modern radiation safety standards.
leslutinsduphoenix.com Nagasaki, Japan on September 24, , 6 weeks after the city was destroyed by the world's second atomic bomb attack.
Initial voyages to Luna and the planets of the solar system. Stories of the first efforts to set up terrestrial bases on the planets. Stories of the first colonies on such worlds, their problems internal and external, their conflicts with the parent world (maybe even a war of independence), interplanetary commerce, spaceship trade lanes, space pirates, .
Year 7 intake for the next school year Prospective students and their parents are invited to attend Read More. FLUORIDE, TEETH, AND THE ATOMIC BOMB By Joel Griffiths and Chris Bryson.
Some fifty years after the United States began adding fluoride to public water supplies to reduce cavities in children's teeth, declassified government documents are shedding new light on the roots of that still-controversial public health measure, revealing a surprising .