December 2, By Margaret Allen, Southern Methodist University Why does a child grow up to become a lawyer, a politician, a professional athlete, an environmentalist or a churchgoer?
The research is published in the journal PLoS Genetics. Greg Gibson, formerly William Neal Reynolds Professor of Genetics at NC State and currently a faculty member at the University of Queensland in Australia, set out to study the impact of the transition from traditional to urbanized lifestyles on the human immune system.
They used the latest tools for characterizing the sequence and expression of all 23, human genes to compare the three Moroccan Amazigh groups. These groups were chosen because they have a similar genetic makeup but lead distinct ways of life and occupy different geographic domains.
Thus, differences in gene expression profiles between the three groups would likely be due to environmental and not genetic factors. The team uncovered specific genes and pathways that are affected by lifestyle and geography. For example, they found respiratory genes were upregulated, or turned on, more frequently in the urban population than in the nomadic or agrarian populations.
This makes sense, Idaghdour says, as urban dwellers deal with greater amounts of pollution in the city and encounter more difficulties with diseases like asthma and bronchitis.
So it stands to reason that certain respiratory genes in city dwellers go into overdrive while staying quiet in rural and nomadic populations, he adds.
The NC State researchers also examined every gene in each of the three populations and found very few genetic differences, positing that these limited differences were unlikely to explain the large gene expression differences.
About 30 percent of genes were differentially expressed between urban dwellers and mountain agrarians. So you must look at the environment when studying associations between genes and disease. An abstract of the paper follows.
Storey, Princeton University; and Sami J. April 11,in PloS Genetics Abstract: The different environments that humans experience are likely to impact physiology and disease susceptibility.
In order to estimate the magnitude of the impact of environment on transcript abundance, we examined gene expression in peripheral blood leukocyte samples from 46 desert nomadic, mountain agrarian and coastal urban Moroccan Amazigh individuals. Despite great expression heterogeneity in humans, as much as one third of the leukocyte transcriptome was found to be associated with differences among regions.
Genome-wide polymorphism analysis indicates that genetic differentiation in the total sample is limited and is unlikely to explain the expression divergence. Methylation profiling of 1, CpG sites suggests limited contribution of methylation to the observed differences in gene expression.
Genetic network analysis further implies that specific aspects of immune function are strongly affected by regional factors and may influence susceptibility to respiratory and inflammatory disease.
Our results show a strong genome-wide gene expression signature of regional population differences that presumably include lifestyle, geography, and biotic factors, implying that these can play at least as great a role as genetic divergence in modulating gene expression variation in humans.In the past, debates over the relative contributions of nature versus nurture often took a very one-sided approach, with one side arguing that nature played the most important role and the other side suggesting that it was nurture that was the most significant.
However, the environmental stimulation, or nurture-inspired perspective will play a more important role than the nature approach does, given a special case of . Amhar Hira Hamza Ibrahim Raahim Siddiqi The Importance of Nurture Over Nature There is much evidence against the theory that Nature (hereditary, genetic traits that are passed on from parents to their children) is the primary factor in determining behaviour.
Because of the nature of the nature versus nurture essay, you have to pick three important arguments in support of the thesis, and each should occupy one paragraph with wonderful evidence to support them and examples to back the evidence up.
“He was the ultimate experiment in Nature Versus Nurture, and she imagined he must be engaged in a constant battle between what he was and what he wanted to be.” ― Larissa Ione, Pleasure Unbound. tags: nature-vs-nurture. 8 likes. Like “Day after day, more and more medications are prescribed for depression and addiction, assuming that.
Psychology – Nature and Nurture. Nature and Nurture.
Nature – refers to those characteristics and abilities that that are determined by your genes. Supporters of this view = hereditarians or nativists; Nurture – refers to the influences of experience and environment. A belief that all knowledge is gained through experience.