This is the text of my keynote speech at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress in Leipzig, December
Origins[ edit ] "The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. The natural unit of information was therefore the decimal digit, much later renamed the hartley in his honour as a unit or scale or measure of information.
Alan Turing in used similar ideas as part of the statistical analysis of the breaking of the German second world war Enigma ciphers. The main landmark event that opened the way to the development of communication theory was the publication of an article by Claude Shannon in the Bell System Technical Journal in July and October under the title " A Mathematical Theory of Communication ".
He used also tools in probability theorydeveloped by Norbert Wiener. They marked the nascent stages of applied communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory.
Inin a declassified version of his wartime work on the mathematical theory of cryptography " Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems "he proved that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the one-time pad.
He is also credited with the introduction of sampling theorywhich is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a uniform discrete set of samples. This theory was essential in enabling telecommunications to move from analog to digital transmissions systems in the s and later.
InShannon made his fundamental contribution to natural language processing and computational linguistics with his article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English"providing a clear quantifiable link between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition. Models of communication[ edit ] Main article: Models of communication The studies on information theory by Claude Elwood Shannon, Warren Weaver and others, prompted research on new models of communication from other scientific perspectives like psychology and sociology.
In science, a model is a structure that represents a theory.
They developed a model of communication which was intended to assist in developing a mathematical theory of communication. It contributed to computer science. It led to very useful work on redundancy in language.
Shannon calls this element the "information source", which "produces a message or sequence of messages to be communicated to the receiving terminal.
Shannon calls this element the "transmitter", which "operates on the message in some way to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel.
For Shannon, the channel is "merely the medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to receiver. For Shannon, the receiver "performs the inverse operation of that done by the transmitter, reconstructing the message from the signal.
For Shannon, the destination is "the person or thing for whom the message is intended". The message is a conceptinformation, communication, or statement that is sent in a verbal, written, recorded, or visual form to the recipient.The unsettling oddness was there from the first moment, on March 8, when Malaysia Airlines announced that a plane from Kuala Lumpur bound for Beijing, Flight , had disappeared over the South.
Nassim Taleb talks about the financial crisis, how we misunderstand rare events, the fragility of the banking system, the moral hazard of government bailouts, the unprecedented nature of really, really bad events, the contribution of human psychology to misinterpreting probability and the dangers of hubris.
The conversation closes with a discussion of religion and probability. Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ .
Uncertainty, anxiety and avoidance in communication with strangers Interaction during first encounters is characterized by the limited amount of information available. Communication with strangers is one type of situation that is potentially replete with novelty, unfamiliarity, anxiety, and uncertainty.
Article PDF. Introduction. The early s marked the first publications both in English studies and communication studies to address lesbian and gay issues. By virtue of the stranger’s simultaneous nearness and distance from others, the stranger is often valued for his or her objectivity, for being able to take a distanced and dispassionate view of events and relationships.